Global practices related to handling of faeces and urine in hospitals - results of an IFIC survey

  • Walter Popp Hospital Hygiene University Clinics Essen
  • Khand Zorigt
  • Michael Borg
  • Simeone Zerafa
  • Nagwa Khamis
  • Nizam Damani
  • Abimbola Sowande
  • Candice Friedman
  • Carol Goldman
  • Tim Lieske
  • Terrie Lee
  • Judith Richards


In 2012 and 2013, IFIC board launched a survey about handling of faeces and urine in hospitals, available in 8 languages. There were 1.440 answers from 93 countries worldwide, 75% from urban hospitals. Answers were given for typical situation of defecation of patients, hand washing facilities, cleaning of defecation area, handling of defecation in bed, use and disinfection of bedpans. Also a lot of free comments were given. The results show a big influence of history, culture and religion. Before making recommendations, more knowledge should be known about this issue on a worldwide level.
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