International Journal of Infection Control International Journal of Infection Control International Federation of Infection Control (IFIC) en-US International Journal of Infection Control 1996-9783 <p><span style="color: #4b7d92;">Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to IJIC. Read the full <a href="">Copyright- and Licensing Statement</a>.</span></p> Knowledge, perception of risk of disease, and infection prevention and control practices among healthcare workers and support staff toward COVID-19 in an Ethiopian referral hospital: a cross-sectional survey <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic affecting over 106 million and killing over 2.3 million people. Inadequate knowledge of the disease coupled with scarce or improper use of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures by healthcare workers (HCWs) and support staff may be contributing to the rapid spread of infection. This survey aims to assess knowledge, risk perception, and precaution practices of HCWs and support staff toward COVID-19 under resource-constrained circumstances at a major referral hospital in Ethiopia. An institution-based survey was conducted in April 2020 using 422 subjects selected by stratified random sampling. A five-section survey instrument was distributed, and the collected responses were cleaned and entered into Epi data (v3.1) and exported to SPSS (v.26) for further statistical analysis. The survey found that about 58% of the HCWs and support staff in the hospital appear to have adequate awareness and perceive COVID-19 to be a high-risk disease. Seven out of 10 subjects practice some form of IPC measures. However, the knowledge among allied HCWs and support staff appears to be inadequate. Gender, occupation, and years in service correlated with the level of awareness. Of those surveyed, 78% were concerned about the lack of personal protective equipment and perceived public transportation to be a high-risk factor for the transmission of infection. Additional campaigns may be necessary to reinforce existing knowledge of HCWs, but more emphasis should be geared toward educating allied HCWs and support staff.</p> Esubalew T. Mindaye Bekalu Assaminew Goytom K. Tesfay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 17 1 10.3396/ijic.v17.20726 Self-medication practice and associated factors among adults in Wolaita Soddo town, Southern Ethiopia <p><strong><em>Background</em></strong>: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat their self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. Self-medication can decrease costs and enable health professionals to concentrate on more serious health problems.</p> <p><strong><em>Aim</em></strong>: To assess self-medication practice and associated factors among adults in Wolaita Soddo town, Southern Ethiopia, 2017.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong>: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from September 30 to October 30, 2017. A multi-stage sampling technique of drug retail outlets in Wolaita Soddo town was employed to identify 623 individuals that came to buy drugs in the past three months. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: About 33.7% of the respondents had practiced self-medication in the past 3 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–3.36), low income (AOR = 3.95, 95% CI: 2.32–6.73) and higher educational level (AOR = 5.79, 95% CI: 2.47–13.58) were the independent factors significantly affecting the practice of self-medication with drugs. Headache/fever (32.4%), respiratory tract infections (31.4%) and gastrointestinal diseases (16.2%) were the most frequently reported illnesses or symptoms of illnesses that prompted self-medication of study participants.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Health education campaigns, strict legislations on dispensing drugs from private pharmacies, and improving accessibility and affordability of health care are among the important interventions required to change people’s health-seeking behavior and prevent the potential risks of self-medication.</p> Tamirat Mathewos Kassa Daka Shimelis Bitew Deresse Daka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 17 1 10.3396/ijic.v17.20322 Investigation of the effectiveness of antimicrobial photocatalyst-coated hand-contact surfaces in passenger transport vehicles under everyday conditions <p>The coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic affects all aspects of public life. Measures for infection prevention are implemented in various sectors, in businesses, as well as in private life. Public transport is important and indispensable in daily life for both children and adults.</p> <p>Public transport companies have to take necessary actions to protect passengers and drivers from infections. Skin contact is one of the ways of transmitting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).</p> <p>This research study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a photocatalytic, antimicrobial active surface coating under everyday – not hospital – conditions. To date, such coatings have been used in hospitals as an additional measure to regular cleaning and disinfection in order to reduce the risk of infection.</p> <p>We collected samples for bacterial cultures in three classes of public transport vehicles: bus, underground, and tram. Seven different hand-contact surfaces in one vehicle of each class were coated, while the other vehicles remained uncoated. All vehicles were in regular use. The number of colony-forming bacterial units per cm<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;(CFUs/cm<sup>2</sup>) was measured. A representative number of isolates were differentiated at the pathogen level. Data collected were entered into GraphPad Prism (GraphPad Software, San Diego, USA) and analyzed.</p> <p>Overall, no statistically significant reduction in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) was observed for coated versus uncoated surfaces. Samples with a very high colony count (&gt;250 CFU/25 cm<sup>2</sup>) were equally distributed in both groups, coated and uncoated vehicles. Within one vehicle type, there was no significant difference between the coated and the uncoated vehicle. No relevant infection-preventive effect could be proven.</p> Rudolf Eicker Wilhelm Salomon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-14 2021-05-14 17 1 10.3396/ijic.v17.20969 Patient risk factor stratification is essential for the hospital antibiogram <p>Empiric antimicrobial therapy in hospitalized patients is guided by an institution’s cumulative antibiogram, which may not be adequate in giving information on decision-making for optimal treatment in different patient populations. Adding patient risk factors can make it more useful for clinicians in guiding empiric therapy and for antimicrobial stewardship. Cumulative data were obtained for blood culture and urine isolates from the laboratory information system of a tertiary care hospital for 6 months (January to June 2019). Further stratification of organism types and resistance rates on the basis of patient risk factors (Patient Types 1, 2, and 3) was performed and analyzed.&nbsp;<em>Salmonella</em>&nbsp;spp. was seen in community-acquired ward patients (Types 1 and 2).&nbsp;<em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em>&nbsp;was seen in Type 1 patients, and&nbsp;<em>Acinetobacter</em>&nbsp;spp. was seen in Type 3 patients. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative infection rates were higher in community patients than in hospital patients. Carbapenem-resistant&nbsp;<em>Enterobacteriaceae</em>&nbsp;rates were high in Type 3 hospitalized patients. Cumulative blood methicillin-resistant&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>&nbsp;rates were 43% but stratification showed it only in Type 2 and Type 3 ICU patients with 0% in ward patients. Stratified antibiograms based on patient risk factors are valuable for antimicrobial stewardship and help to optimize empiric therapy and increase the understanding of antimicrobial resistance trends.</p> Karuna Tiwari Samruddhi Patil Aparna Naik Anjali Shetty Kamini Walia Camilla Rodrigues ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-21 2021-04-21 17 1 10.3396/ijic.v17.20089 Reuse of disposable gowns for COVID-19 personal protective equipment purposes in times of scarcity: results of an experimental study with hydrogen peroxide vaporization <p>During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many health organizations faced shortages of personal protective equipment for their personnel. In case of extreme urgency, re-using disposable materials might offer a temporary solution. Hydrogen peroxide vaporization (HPV) has been used for disinfection of patient rooms for more than a decade. We investigated HPV as a method for disinfecting disposable gowns. After HPV, gowns proved to be free of bacteria and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA while their functionality and water-repellency remained intact. We conclude that, in case of emergency and lack of available alternatives, HPV is a suitable and relatively inexpensive method for one-time reuse of disposable gowns.</p> Roy J. Pelzer Elke JP Magdeleyns Paul HM Savelkoul Lieke B van Alphen van Alphen Wil C van der Zwet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-03-12 2021-03-12 17 1 10.3396/ijic.v17.21090 ‘Seconds save lives – clean your hands’: the 5 May 2021 World Health Organization’s SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign Benedetta Allegranzi Ermira Tartari Didier Pittet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-04-27 2021-04-27 17 1 10.3396/ijic.v17.21418